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93rd Amendment Act in Indian Constitution

==93rd Amendment Act in Indian Constitution==

* In ''article 15'' of the [[Important-Amendments-Indian-Constitution|constitution]], after clause (4), the following clause shall be inserted, namely:“(5) Nothing in this article ore in sub-clause (g) of clause (1) of article 19 shall prevent the State from making nay special provision, by law, of the advancement of any socially and educationally backward classes of citizens or for the Scheduled Casts or the Scheduled Tribes in so far as such special provisions relate to their admission to educational institutions, whether aided or unaided by the State, other than the minority educational institutions referred to in clause (1) of article 30”.

==93rd Amendment Act in Indian Constitution==

* The Constitution (93rd) Amendment Act, providing for reservation for socially and economically backward classes, besides the Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes, in private unaided educational institutions was passed in the Parliament on December 22, 2005 with the Rajya Sabha adopting it by a majority vote.

* The new Act is in the nature of an “enabling legislation” which empowered the concerned legislature to enact a law in this regard. The states are required to draft their own laws to ensure the implementation of the Constitutional amendment.

* This step has been taken by the govt. in order to fulfill its constitutional obligation of uplift of the backward classes.
(5) in Article 15 for the advancement of socially and educationally backward classes of SCs/STs.

* But minority run institutions have been exempted as they are covered by Article 30(1) which gives them the right to establish and administer educational institution.

'''The tenure and the age for the Retirement of:'''

- Chairman & members of UPSC: 65 years of age/6 years
- Chairman & members of SSC : 62 years of age/5 years
- Comptroller and Auditor General : 65 years of age/6 years
- CEC & Election commissioners : 65 years of age/6 years
- CJI & Supreme Court Judges : 65 years of age
- CJHC & Judges of High Courts : 65 years of age