Forests In India
Tropical Dry Evergreen
- These forests usually occur along the Coromandel coast which receives about 100 m of rainfall by the retreating monsoon from October to December.
- The annual mean of temperature is 28 and that of humidity 74. Trees in these forests have low height (9-12 m) exhibiting canopies.
- Bamboos are rare or absent and grasses not very conspicuous.
- Important species are khimi, jamun, kokko; ritha, tamarind, neem, toddy palm, gamari and cane etc.
Montane Sub-Tropical Forests
Sub-Tropical Moist (pint:) Forests Such forests are found in North-Western Himalaya (except in Kashmir), khasi hills, Nagaland and Manipur between altitude of 1000 m and 1800 m.
- Here, the amount of annual rainfall ranges between 100 cm and 200 cm, with average annual temperature of 15 – 22 and humidity of 63 – 77% (Ranikhet). Chir is the main, tree.
Sub-Tropical Dry Evergeen Forests
- These forests occupy piedmont area of Himalaya in Punjab, Haryana and Kashmir (Salt Range and Black Tiger Hills) from 450 to 15000 m of height.
- Here, average annual temperature is 20 (January 10, june 32) with rainfall between 50cm and 100cm and number of rainy days from 26 to 38.
- Vegetation of this region resembles the dry everygreen Mediterranean type dominated by thorny shrubs (height 1.8-3.0) with short leaves. It includes various species of acacia with main trees like olive, acacia modesta, and pistacia etc…. Grasses and shrubs appear during rainy season.
Sub-Tropical Wet Hill Forests
- Such forests are found in Nilgiri, Palni hills (height 900m to 1650 m), Mahabaleshwar, Pancamarhi (90m-180m) and Assam hills.
- These areas experience annual rainfall of more than 150cm (rainy days 78 to 146), average; annual temperature between 18 and 24 and humidity from 51 to 81 %.
- Oak and chest nut are the main trees in the eastern Himalayas.