Mountain Temparature Forests In India
The Mountain Temperature Forests mainly consists of the following Forests.
They are :
- Wet Temperature Forests.
- Himalayan Moist Temperature Forests.
- Himalayan Dry Temperature Forest.
Wet temperature forests
- These forest lie above 1500 m on the solpes of the Nilgiris, Anaimalais, Palnis, Eastern Himalaya and Assam hills (18602859 m).
- The climbing conditions are: annual rainfall more than 150cm, average annuam temperature 18 with freezing point during winter months (December – February), and dense fog.
- In south India these forests are locally called shoals which are dense (tree height 15-18m) with much undergrowth and many epiphytes, mosses and ferns. Magnolla, laurel, rhododendron, plane, elm, prunus and plun are common plant species. Cinchona, wattle and eucalyptus have been introduced form outside. In north India, oak, chest nut and laurel are common tree varienes.
- Himalayan Moist Temparate Forests: These forests cover the entire Himalayan Zone from Kashmir to Sikkim and Arunachal Pradesh between altitude of 15000 m – 3300 m.
- Here, average annual temperature is 12-13, rainfall 100-300 cm and annual humidity 56-65 per cent.
- These forests contain mixed species of broad-leaved ever greens and the conifers (height 30-45 m).
- Oak, fir, spruce, deodar, celtis, chest nut, cedar and maple (Uttarakhand), spruce, deodar, silver fir, kail, oak, yew, maple and birch (in Sajluj Valley) are important tree varieties.
- Deodar provides a fine durable wood for commercial uses. These forests also contain scrubs, creepers and ferns.
Himalayan Dry Temperate Forests
- Dry temperate forest occur in Lakakh, Baltistan, Chamba, Lahaul, inner Garhwal and Sikkim in low rainfall (less than 100 cm) zone above 1500, of height.
- Here, xerophytci scrubs with deodar, juniper, Farxinus xanthoxylodies chilgozah, maple, ash celtis and oak are predominant trees.
CLIMATE DATA FOR BIOME
Model used: Hadley Centre Regional Model; Had RM3
Mean monthly temp. & rainfall, cloud cover
Scale: 0.44 x 0.44 degree RCM grid
Scenarios: SRES; A2 and B2
Period: 2071-2100 mid period: 2085
Observed Climate data: CRU data set for 1901-1995
from East Anglia (0.5x0.5 degree grid)