Supreme Court of India
The Supreme Court of India is the apex court of India and the highest court of appeal. It came into being on the 28th of January, 1950 two days after India became a Sovereign Democratic Republic.
Jurisdiction Of Supreme Court
The Supreme Court has original, appellate and advisory jurisdiction.
- Original Jurisdiction: Its exclusive original jurisdiction extends to any dispute between the:
- Government of India and one or more States
- Between the Government of India and any State or States on one side and one or more States on the other, or
- Between two or more States, if and insofar as the dispute involves any question (whether of law or of fact) on which the existence or extent of a legal right depends.
In addition, Article 32 of the Constitution gives an extensive original jurisdiction to the Supreme Court in regard to enforcement of Fundamental Rights. It is empowered to issue directions, orders or writs, including writs in the nature of habeas corpus, mandamus, prohibition, quo warrantor and certiorari to enforce them.
* Appellate jurisdiction -
Appeals from High Courts: in respect of any judgement, decree or final order of a High Court in both civil and criminal cases, involving substantial questions of law as to the interpretation of the Constitution
- In addition The Supreme Court is empowered to grant special leave to appeal from any judgment, decree, determination, sentence or order in any cause or matter passed or made by any Court or Tribunal in the territory of India.
* Advisory Jurisdiction- The Supreme Court has special advisory jurisdiction in matters which may specifically be referred to it by the President of India
Composition of Supreme Court of India
The Supreme Court of India comprises of the Chief Justice and not more than 25 other Judges appointed by the President of India.
Location of Supreme Court of India
The Supreme Court is located at Tilak Marg, New Delhi. After its inauguration, the Supreme Court commenced its sittings in a part of the Parliament House. The Court moved into the present building in 1958. The building is shaped to project the image of scales of justice.